Tuesday, June 14, 2016

Why You Should Eat Mussels

Steam them in chopped tomato, olive oil, wine, oregano, and garlic. Eat with a baguette.
I'm pretty excited about eating mussels, because
  1. they are a good source of protein,
  2. the probably don't feel any pain, and
  3. because they are filter feeders, they actually *clean* the water they are in. This is something you can't say about many farmed animals. So they are good for the environment.
I was at the Canadian Science Writer's conference recently and asked a fish farming scientist a question I get asked: because mussels are filter feeders, should I worry about bioaccumulation? Bioaccumulation is when unhealthful pollutants (often heavy metals) accumulate in fish over the course of their lifetime. This is a problem with big fish, like tuna. He said no, because they are farmed in fairly clean water, and because they grow to maturity so quickly the pollutants inside are negligible. 

I plan to eat more!

Bookmark and Share

Monday, June 13, 2016

Write in: Why do people care more about dogs than people?

The dog in the film "Independence Day." When this dog survived the explosion, the cinema I was in erupted into applause.

I got a good question in my inbox the other day.

Hey Jim,
My name is Henri one of the readers of your book "Riveted". Amazing stuff by the way!
Book made me wonder a one Question.
Why people feel more feelings when human is killing a dog in th1e movies? But when human is killing a human if feels like just a normal day.
Have you never wondered about this & do you have some kind of thought why?
My answer:
Glad you liked the book!
I don't know any data on this, but I think people think about dogs like they do children. So I think that when a dog is hurt on screen, people respond kind of like they would if a child were hurt. So what I would predict is that they would be just as disturbed by a child being hurt on screen as a dog, and the difference you are thinking of would appear only for adult humans being hurt on screen. 

You can see my book at http://www.jimdavies.org/riveted/

Bookmark and Share

Monday, June 06, 2016

Struggling for Good Data on Animal Welfare

Is this a "medium" sized cage? How the hell am I supposed to know? 

A "Whole Foods" supermarket opened recently in my city, and I was very excited because it offers meat that meets what appear to be fairly rigorous ethical standards. For example, when I buy a chicken there, I know that it wasn't raised in a cage. I've read many things that make me think that animals that are raised for meat are pretty miserable, and I didn't want to support that.

I recently got back from the conference of the Canadian Science Writer's Association, which was held in Guelph, Ontario. It was hosted by the University of Guelph, which prides itself as being "Canada's Food University." I met a few farmers there, and what they told me has made me less certain.

We all have a problem with anthropomorphizing animals a bit too much. Without other data, I suppose it's okay, but we really should try to find scientific findings before insisting on this or that treatment. I remember being told by a zoo director years ago that there were people at the zoo protesting the fact that the orangutan was in an enclosure all by itself. But in the wild, orangutans are solitary creatures. So when we insist on good animal treatment, we should take care to know what it is the animals actually want. Of course, we cannot ask them, so we need clever experiments to get the answers we need.

According to the farmers, chickens evolved from a wild bird that liked to live in the roots under trees. They argue that being in a cage is actually less stressful for them than being in the open, because it resembles their ancestral home more. Further, chickens tend to be mean to each other. They have dominance displays that can result in some chickens being malnourished or dying. This is more likely in a cage-free environment. I was also told that chicken welfare has been studied, and the finding was that a "medium sized cage" (I'm don't know how big that is) is better than a cage that's too small and better than being out in the open.

Unfortunately, when you go to the grocery store, we are told that the chickens (or eggs) are either cage free or not, and you have no idea what size the cage was that the chickens were raised in. What's the customer supposed to do?

I also asked about small enclosures. In the book I'm reading right now, Sapiens, there is a picture of a cow in a small enclosure. I am told that this cow only gets out of this and able to interact with other cows on its way to slaughter, about four months into its life. That certainly sounds miserable. I told this to a farmer and she said that maybe this was done with veal, but not with cows. And the reason? Doing that is actually more expensive than putting them in a common pen.

And those pictures of pigs, locked into cages on their side? I was told that this wasn't done for their whole lives, but only for feeding piglets. And why? Because mother pigs have a tendency to flop over and crush their piglets. So even that cage, which looks like a medieval torture device, is used to protect the animals from hurting each other.

I was told that when farmers see videos of animal abuse, they think that the people doing it are idiots and are giving farmers a bad name.

Okay, so who should we believe? The problem is that we see these pictures and videos that are pretty scary, and we don't always know the reasons farmers do what they do (sometimes it's actually in the animals' best interest), and further, we have no idea of whether the abuse we see is systematic. How often does it happen? Are we really supporting that when we buy meat?

I can honestly say that at this point I have no idea. I feel I have no source of information that is from an unbiased group. Animal welfare activists have an interest in making us think the abuse is more widespread than it is (I'm not saying they're guilty of it, only that they have an incentive).

Likewise, the farmers have an incentive to make it look like everything's hunky dory. At the conference I was given a magazine called The Real Dirt on Farming, which was published by the Farm and Food Care Foundation, which is an association of farmers and associated businesses. This document is dismissive of the animal rights movement (p45):
"Activists of any kind are not usually interested in finding solutions, but prefer to focus on problems and dramatic examples to generate funds and support for their organizations." 
Wow. If they wanted to look unbiased, they sure screwed up there. Activists of any kind? Really? Is that what they think of the women's liberation movement of the 1960s, or Martin Luther King, Jr.? It makes me wonder if the whole document is bullshit.

So now I'm not sure what to think. Are there any scientific results out there that is from arms-length groups that can shed light on this issue? What is a concerned consumer supposed to do?

(And yes, I tried being vegetarian and I was miserable.)

Related links:
I have implemented "meat offsets," inspired by carbon offsets, where I donate money every time I eat unethical meat. See my blog post at:

Image from Wikimedia Commons. 

Bookmark and Share

Friday, May 20, 2016

Top 10 Most Popular Contributors to 4Chan

  1. Anonymous
  2. Anonymous
  3. Anonymous
  4. Anonymous
  5. Anonymous
  6. Anonymous
  7. Anonymous
  8. Anonymous
  9. Anonymous
  10. Anonymous

Plus an honorable mention: Anonymous

Image from Wikimedia Commons:

Bookmark and Share

Wednesday, January 06, 2016

The Books I read in 2015

My book consumption has gone up drastically since I started listening to Audiobooks! Audible has a subscription service that for $10 per month you get 1 credit, which can be spent on any audio book. It's a great deal.

Paradox Lake by J.D. Spero
The Happiness Project by Gretchen Rubin
Great book. Rubin reads everything about happiness and reports on her experience trying to improve herself.
The Martian by Andy Weir (audible)
Behavioral Economics (The Great Courses) by Scott Huettel (audible)
Beastie Boys Book Deluxe: A Unique Box Set Celebration of the Beastie Boys by Frank Owen
The Girl with All the Gifts by M. R. Carey (audible)
Meaning of Life: Perspectives From the World's Great Intellectual Traditions. The Great Courses by Jay L. Garfield (audible)
Lost Worlds of South America (Great Courses/The Teaching Company) by Edwin Barnhart (audible)
Guilty Pleasures by Laurell K. Hamilton
The Medeival World (The Great Courses) by Dorsey Armstrong (audible)
Hallucinations by Oliver Sacks
The Great Courses - Philosophy of Science by Jeffrey L. Kasser (audible)
The Neurobiology of the Gods: How Brain Physiology Shapes the Recurrent Imagery of Myth and Dreams by Goodwyn, Erik D.
Espionage and Covert Operations: A Global History (Great Courses / The Teaching Company) by Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius (audible)
***The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically by Peter Singer
The Deaths of Tao: Tao Series Book Two by Wesley Chu
The Art of Risk: The New Science of Courage, Caution, and Chance by Kayt Sukel
Heroes and Legends: The Most Influential Characters of Literature (The Great Courses) by Thomas A. Shippey(audible)
Firefight (The Reckoners Book Two) by Brandon Sanderson (audible)
Imaginary Companions and the Children Who Create Them by Marjorie Taylor
Fooled by Randomness by Nasim Nicholas Taleb (audible)
A Fire Upon the Deep by Vernor Vinge (audible)
How to Write a Novel Using the Snowflake Method by Randy Ingermanson
Customs of the World: Using Cultural Intelligence to Adapt, Wherever You Are (The Great Courses) by David Livermore (audible)
The Lives of Tao by Wesley Chu ****
Mating in Captivity by Esther Perel (Audible)
The Magicians by Lev Grossman (audible)
*** Steelheart (Reckoners Book 1) by Brandon Sanderson (audible)
Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers by Robert Sapolsky (audible)

Bookmark and Share

Friday, November 27, 2015

Writing and the Word "Said" Part 1

"Should I use `replied' in my novel?" she said, not asked.

I've read several books on how to write fiction, and been to many writing conferences, and there is one piece of advice that seems to be unquestioningly believed and repeated:

Don't use any word for "said" other than "said." That means never use questioned, replied, exclaimed and so on.

The belief is that using these other words is distracting, pretentious, and a sign of amateur writing.

At the same conferences, and sometimes in the same talk, people will advise to use unusual ways of describing people. Use a less familiar word, like "grimy" rather than just "dirty" all the time.

These two pieces of advice are, at least at first glance, contradictory. Why is it okay to use unusual ways of describing in one context but not another?

It's further complicated by the fact that there is no empirical evidence that I've ever been able to find that they are right.

In the meantime, I just read reviews of the audio version of Scalzi's Redshirts and it's almost hilarious how many people complain that--I'm not kidding-- he uses "said" too much! Take a look for yourself; it's pretty striking.

Interestingly, the reviews for the print and kindle editions don't complain about this as much (though some do.)

Is "exclaimed" really that bad?

I have an ambition to run a study to find out. I'm just waiting for an interested student (when that study is done I'll post Part 2).

Bookmark and Share

Friday, April 24, 2015

Tabletop Role-Playing Gaming with Little Kids (ages 4-9)

Stealth Fighter's character sheet
Recently I played a tabletop role-playing session with my wife and three young nephews, ages 9, 7, and 4. It worked beautifully, and I wanted to share with you how I did it and how easy it was.

The first thing I did was make rules, and I wanted them very, very simple. Basically, anytime their characters tried to do something difficult, the kids rolled two six-sided dice and summed the results. If it was higher than 6, it was a success, and if it was 6 or lower, it was a setback (not a failure).

I asked them to make characters: What is your character? What weapon does he or she use? What is his or her magic power?

They had no trouble doing this, and the results were delightful. The eldest made "Fireborg," a cyborg man who used a flaming sword and could do an "explosion stomp."

The middle child made "Stealth Fighter," who was half cat and a little bit raccoon. He used spears and could climb on walls as his magic power. He wanted to draw a picture, which you can see in the image. Adorable!

The youngest made "Ninja Blobby," a slimy ninja who threw slime for a weapon and could replicate himself.

My beloved created an elf named "Galadriel" who threw glass balls and could heal people.

That was basically it. We got started.

I made a very basic adventure. The setting was sword-and-sorcery fantasy. Townspeople complained that a monster was stealing their livestock. The characters ventured into the mountains and
had to cross a rickety bridge with flying snakes attacking. Losing rolls are "setbacks" resulting in either some inconvenience (a delay) or actual "harm." Each character had four hit points.

 After this first encounter I had them look at their attributes: tough, smart, and magic. They could pick one to get +1 on rolls, another to get +0, and the last would get -1. As you can see from the pictured character sheet, Stealth Fighter had -1 Tough, +1 Smart, and +0 Magic.

Then they encountered a giant locked door. An old man was there and they talked him into giving them the key. This required a roll.

Then they entered the dragon's lair.  After a fight they returned to the town, where each got a healing potion as reward.

The whole thing took about 45 minutes, the kids stayed interested throughout, and one asked to play again the next day, this time with a new character, "Glorglius," who was a ghost who could throw electric balls.

Getting kids using their imaginations does not require complex rules. They do it naturally. Just make something simple and go for it.

Bookmark and Share